On Councils: Their Nature and Authority – Bellarmine

On Councils
On Councils
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In On Councils: Their Nature and Authority, St. Robert Bellarmine answers the attack of the early Protestant Reformers on by treating on all matters pertaining to Councils. Beginning with definitions and terms, Bellarmine explores in summary all the Councils approved in his day, as well as those only partially approved and those not approved at all. Then he examines their purpose and foundations in Scripture, the Fathers, and history. In the second book, Bellarmine examines the authority of Councils according to the same standard, proving especially that the Pope is above Councils and is the one to summon and confirm them. To prove his case he musters his considerable scholarship and answers not only the arguments of Luther and Calvin, but of each early Protestant to show that approved Councils do not contradict each other, and the Church does not put Councils above the Word of God.

Sample chapter:

Book I, CHAPTER IX
On the utility or even the necessity of celebrating Councils

Therefore, with all of this noted, we must explain in what things legitimate Councils consist, and these can be reduced to four: 1) the end; 2) efficiency; 3) matter and; 4) the form of Councils. Now let us begin with the end, which is the first of these reasons. It will be the first reason that must be briefly explained on account of which Councils are usually celebrated; then from those it will be determined whether a gathering of Councils is necessary or merely useful. Moreover, the particular reasons on account of which Councils are celebrated are usually numbered as six.
a) The first reason is a new heresy, i.e. something that had never been judged before, which is the very reason the first seven Councils were convened. The Church always so dealt with the danger of new heresies that she did not think it could be resisted otherwise than if all or certainly a great many leaders of the Churches, once their strength was joined as if it were made into a column of soldiers, would rush upon the enemies of the faith.
b) The second reason is schism among Roman Pontiffs; for a Council in the time of Pope Cornelius was celebrated for this very reason. Likewise, another in the time of Pope Damasus and again in the times of Symmachus, Innocent II and Alexander III, as well as Pisa and Constance in the times of Gregory XII and Benedict XIII, for there is no more powerful remedy than a Council as has so often been proved.
c) The third is resistance to a common enemy of the whole Church; in this manner Councils were convened by Urban II, Calixtus II, Eugene III, and other Popes, for war against the Saracens. Likewise, to depose an emperor, Gregory III celebrated Councils against Leo III the Iconoclast, as did Gregory VII against Henry IV, and Innocent IV against Frederick II.
d) The fourth reason is suspicion of heresy in the Roman Pontiff, if perhaps it might happen, or if he were an incorrigible tyrant; for then a general Council ought to be gathered either to depose the Pope if he should be found to be a heretic, or certainly to admonish him if he seemed incorrigible in morals. As it is related in the 8th Council, act. ult. can. 21, general Councils ought to impose judgment on controversies arising in regard to the Roman Pontiff—albeit not rashly. For this reason we read that the Council of Sinvessano in the case of St. Marcellinus, as well as Roman Councils in the cases of Pope Damasus, Sixtus III, and Symmachus, as well as Leo III and IV, none of whom were condemned by a Council; Marcellinus enjoined penance upon himself in the presence of the Council, and the rest purged themselves (See Platina and the volumes of Councils).
e) The fifth reason is doubt about the election of a Roman Pontiff. For if the cardinals could not or would not create a Pope, or certainly if they all died at the same time, or a true doubt should arise for another reason to whom an election of this sort would pertain, would look to a general Council to discern in regard to the election of a future Pope, although it does not seem to be realistic to expect this would ever happen.
f) The sixth reason is the general reformation of abuses and vices which crept into the Church; for even if the Pope alone can prescribe laws for the whole Church, nevertheless, it is by far more agreeable for matters to be done with the approval of a general Council when the Pope prescribes laws of this sort. Hence, we see nearly all general Councils published canons on reformation (See Juan Torquemada, lib. 3, cap. 9 &10).

The Autobiography of St. Robert Bellarmine!

The Autobiography of St. Robert Bellarmine:
Along with A Guide to Composing Sermons
Sermons on the Annunciation
Translated by Ryan Grant
With a Foreword by Fr. Philip Wolfe, FSSP

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The Autobiography of St. Robert Bellarmine
Along with: A Guide to Composing Sermons, Sermons on the Annunciation
by St. Robert Bellarmine, S.J.
Translated by Ryan Grant
Foreword by Fr. Philip Wolfe, FSSP

Kindle $7.50

We are proud to present St. Robert Bellarmine’s autobiography for the first time in English.
Bellarmine never set out to compose any writings, but always did so out of obedience. He wrote his autobiography for 2 of his brother Jesuits out of courtesy for their request to have an account of his life. Though he never intended it for any eyes but theirs, it was discovered and published in the 18th century, and became a great success. It is a brief and simple account of the life and travails of a great soul that loved Jesus Christ above all things.
It has value both as the only account of his life currently in English and to researchers who do not have command of Latin to read the original. We have added several footnotes and appendixes to help fill in information that everyone in Bellarmine’s time knew, and as such he felt no need to elaborate on, but today is not so well known. Bellarmine was in the thick of very serious historical events, such as the Sixth War of Religion in France, or his stormy relationship with the imperious Pope Sixtus V.
Nevertheless, to compensate for the shortness we have added another treat, St. Robert Bellarmine’s Guide to Composing Sermons and evidence of this in action, his Sermons on the Annunciation given in Italy. Neither of these have been translated before, and the sermons have scarcely ever been seen in Latin except by a few researchers.
These sermons explore the depths of the mysteries contained in the Annunciation made by the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin, which were preached in Italy while he was a Cardinal in Rome. These explore subjects as diverse as Greek and Hebrew etymology, Angelology, Mariology and the fulfillment of the Old Covenant in Christ. We have also added pictures of the places and people St. Robert mentions when relating his life!
During another chaotic time in the Church, St Philip Neri used to tell his directees that he didn’t care what they read, as long as the author’s name began with the letters ST. That advice is just as helpful today as it was then, and with his Bellarmine Project, Ryan Grant is making the writings of one such author, the great Doctor of the Church St Robert Bellarmine, available to the English speaking public. -Fr. Philip Wolfe, from the Foreword
Excerpts:bellarmine_autobiography_front
WHILE N. [St. Robert refers to himself with the letter “N”] was still a boy, I think of five or six years, he used to speak publicly, and, on a footstool turned upside down, clothed with a string, he began to speak on the Lord’s passion. He had no subtle and lofty genius, but was accommodated to all things that he should be equally adept to take on all disciplines. In youth, he began to love poetry, and consumed a great part of the night in reading Vergil, with whom he has such familiarity that he used no word in his poems that was not Vergilian.
The first poem he wrote was on virginity, and the capital letters rendered it, Virginitas. When he was only a youth of 16, he wrote an eclogue on the death of Cardinal De Nobili, which was recited publicly. He wrote at the same time many poems in Latin and in Italian, and especially books which he did not bring to completion because they were obstacles which were strewn before him to prevent him from entering the Society of Jesus. He not only left these books, written in Vergilian style, unfinished but he even burned them because he was ashamed to have written on such matters.
Before he left Mondovì, or Mons Regalis, a humorous incident happened to him. He was a companion of Fr. Rector to visit the Dominicans. The Prior of the Dominicans invited the Rector to drink, and when he agreed, the Prior said about N., whom he did not know: “Well, your companion, this little brother here, will be glad of a drink.
The next day, that Prior came to the college and found N. carrying out the duty of the porter at the gate, and asked him to call the preacher. N. responded that the preacher could not come, but he would faithfully relate what message his Paternity would entrust. “No,” said the Prior, “I cannot tell you what I want, but take me to the preacher, or call him to me.” “I already said,” N. replied, “The preacher will not come,” and when the Prior insisted, N. was compelled to say, “I am whom you seek, and I cannot come, because I am here.” Then the prior blushed to remember the impertinent joke of the previous day, and humbly begged forgiveness, and asked if N. would preach on Christmas, when he would publish a Papal Bull containing indulgences for almsgiving, made for the support of the general chapter of the Dominicans that was going to be held, which N. promised he would do, and did.

Rome and the Counter-Reformation in England

Rome and the Counter-Reformation in England
By Mgsr. Philip Hughes
With a new foreword by Charles A. Coulombe

 

ISBN-10: 069272933
ISBN-13: 978-0692729335

500 pages
$26.00

 

One can find many of Fr. Hughes works on the Reformation reprinted. Still, one that is lacking his is great study of the Reformation in England. He admits at the outset that the conclusion is already known by the reader before he picks up the book, that the counter-reformation failed in England. What the reader may not know is why.

To that purpose, Fr. Hughes begins his study with the accession of Queen Mary and the appointment of Cardinal Reginald Pole to England as Cardinal Legate. Then he begins the study of how they refashioned the Church to be so strong that the episcopacy universally resisted Elizabeth. He also explores the condition of the average cleric, layman and other things from official documents and primary source texts.

In the next phase, he examines in detail the rise of Protestantism again under Elizabeth, and the projects of St. Pius V and Gregory XIII to help Englishmen depose Elizabeth. The importance of this study is that in the English Protestant historical tradition, Pius V and Gregory, along with the Jesuits and others, are accused of plotting the murder and assassination of Elizabeth. Fr. Hughes, by examining official papers, shows why this was not true, albeit also offering criticism of the official policy in these years. What he shows is that Rome never really had an accurate story on what was going on in England, and as a result committed many blunders in the period when the counter-reformation might have succeeded.

Following the scene to the eventual failure, Fr. Hughes also answers the pivotal questions: Were the English martyrs really traitors to the crown, as official history maintains? Were Cardinal Allen, the founder of Douay College, or Fr. Persons of the Jesuits, active tools of Spanish policy in England? Or did they rather believe the Spaniards would help the Catholic cause? Did St. Pius V try to assassinate Elizabeth?

In all this Fr. Hughes uses primary sources, letters, and reason to paint for us the picture of the counter-reformation’s failures. If one wants to know what Catholic action and life were like in England during the Marian Restoration and the Elizabethan imposition of Protestantism, this is the work. To top it off, Fr. Hughes adds information that is simply not available in print, such as what happened to Catholics in England under the reigns of the first Stewarts, James I and Charles I, and the breakup of Counter-Reformation unity over Episcopal oversight and other issues that fractured Catholic life in England until the restoration of the Hierarchy in the 19th century.

The Life of St. Philip Neri

The Life of St. Philip Neri
Anne Hope
238 pages
ISBN-13: 978-0692381250
$18.50

The Life of St. Philip Neri
Anne Hope

$7.00 Kiindle (Purchase on Amazon)

“He used often to say to them: “Throw yourselves boldly on God, for if He wishes for anything from you, He will fit you in all things for the work in which He is pleased to use you.” He advised them not to ask God for afflictions, but rather to pray Him to give them patience to bear their daily trials. He warned them not to put themselves into the way of temptation, saying that he feared less for one who, though tempted, is careful to avoid the occasions of sin, than for those who are not tempted, but run headlong into danger. He therefore advised them to say frequently with their whole heart: “Lord, do not trust me, for I shall certainly fall if Thou dost not come to my aid.” He also especially recommended them never to say, in times of temptation: “I am resolved not to say or to do” so and so; but rather to say with deep humility: “I know what I ought to do, but I know not whether I shall do it.” -Pg. 119

Life_of_Philip_neri_2_frontSt. Philip Neri lived in the most important century for the history of Western Europe, and in the Catholic Church. Yet, he figures very little into its main events. Rather, he is present in the background, hearing confessions for hours a day, always at prayer, directing penitents in all orders of life, from nobles to homeless peasants. He directed great intellectuals like Cardinal Baronius, or the future Pope Clement VIII, as well as very simple souls and young boys.

This work, originally published in 1859, is largely a translation of Vita di S. Filippo Neri, written by Pietro Bacci, and is based on and augmented from documents in the Canonization process.

The work is an excellent and beautiful biography of St. Philip’s deep prayer life, his gift of prophecy, and how he worked tirelessly in obedience to Christ to lead all to Him, no matter what their state. It is a beautiful testimony of God’s providence at work to reform his Church.

The Mediatrix Press version of this reprint contains numerous pictures (including Churches where he lived and preached) as well as being beautifully laid out. This is a reprint, not a facsimile copy, that has been carefully edited. We have worked very hard to make this text beautiful and easy to read.

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A Champion of the Church: The Life of St. Peter Canisius

Champion_of_the_Church_Front

A Champion of the Church: The Life of St. Peter Canisius
By William Reany, D.D.
250 pages

$12

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“For three centuries, Canisius was regarded as the master of the Catholics of Germany and in the vernacular ‘knowing Canisius’ and ‘keeping the Christian truth’ were synonymous propositions.” – Pope Leo XIII

Among the Doctors of the Church, one of the least known in spite of his importance for Catholic life today, is Peter Canisius, one of the first Jesuits.

Canisius lived in an age of upheaval, confusion, wide distrust of the hierarchy, and warfare between christian princes. Through his learning, zeal, holiness, and zeal, he, more than anyone else, preserved the Catholic faith in German and Switzerland. His voluminous writings, though nearly unknown today, would take up numerous shelves, his catechisms have been praised by Popes for centuries. This is the story, of an ordinary man called upon by God to work among the great men of his age, such as Philip Neri, Ignatius of Loyola, Charles Borromeo, Pius V, Francis de Sales, and countless others. The power of Reany’s biography is that it is simple to read while at the same time interesting and enlightening.

About the Mediatrix Press Edition: This is not a facsimile reprint, it has OCRed from the 1931 original, and dutifully edited and corrected to the original. Mediatrix Press is devoted to bringing works back in print for the modern audience which have fallen by the wayside.